Previously, he had already been arrested in 2011, sentenced to 5 years in prison for receiving funds for human rights activities, and was released early in 2014. After his release, he stayed in Belarus, continuing his human rights activities. He was detained in July 2021 as part of a criminal case, his house and "Viasna" office were searched. On September 26, 2022, it became known that a criminal case against Valentin Stefanovich, presumably Ales Byalyatsky, Vladimir Labkovich and other "Viasna" members under Part 2 of Art. 243 of the Criminal Code (tax evasion) had been terminated, but Ales Byalyatsky, Vladimir Labkovich and Valentin Stefanovich were not released from custody - they were charged with smuggling (illegal movement of a large amount of cash across the customs border of the Eurasian Economic Union by an organized group) according to Part 4 Art. 228 of the Criminal Code and in the financing of group actions that grossly violate public order, under Part 2 of Art. 342 of the Criminal Code. It is known that the state maintains its claims for the same amount of money that was included in the charge for non-payment of taxes. Byalyatsky now faces 7 to 12 years in prison.